Westworld is a American space Western thriller film written and directed by Michael Crichton. It stars Yul Brynner as an android in a futuristic Western -themed amusement park, and Richard Benjamin and James Brolin as guests of the park. The film was from an original screenplay by Crichton, and served as his feature directorial debut. Westworld was followed by a sequel, Futureworldand a short-lived television series, Beyond Westworld A television series based on the film debuted in on HBO.
In the then-future year ofa high-tech, highly realistic adult amusement park called Delos features three themed "worlds": Western World the American Old WestMedieval World medieval Europeand Roman World the ancient Roman city of Pompeii.
The resort's three "worlds" are populated with lifelike androids that are practically indistinguishable from human beings, each programmed in character for their assigned historical environment. Delos's tagline in its advertising promises "Boy, have we got a vacation for you! Peter Martin, a first-time Delos visitor, and his friend John Blane, on a repeat visit, go to Westworld.
One of the attractions is the Gunslingeran android programmed to instigate gunfights. The firearms issued to the park guests have temperature sensors that prevent them from shooting anything with a high body temperature, such as humans, but allow them to "kill" the cold-blooded androids.
The Gunslinger's programming allows guests to draw their guns and kill it, with the android always returning the next day for another duel.How Christopher Nolan Writes and Directs a Movie - The Director's Chair
The technicians running Delos notice problems beginning to spread like an infection among the androids : the androids in Roman World and Medieval World begin experiencing an increasing number of breakdowns and systemic failures, which are said to have spread to Westworld.
When one of the supervising computer scientists scoffs at the "analogy of an infectious disease", he is told by the chief supervisor "We aren't dealing with ordinary machines here. These are highly complicated pieces of equipment, almost as complicated as living organisms.
In some cases, they've been designed by other computers. We don't know exactly how they work. After a night spent with two robotic ladies, Blane is accosted by the same gunslinger Martin killed in the saloon the previous day. Martin bursts into the room and once again shoots the gunslinger dead. Martin is jailed awaiting trial, so Blane breaks him out and the two head out of town.
The malfunctions become more serious when a robotic rattlesnake bites Blane in Westworld, and, against its programming, a female android refuses a guest's advances in Medieval World. The failures escalate until Medieval World's Black Knight android kills a guest in a sword fight. The resort's supervisors try to regain control by shutting down power to the entire park. However, the shutdown traps them in central control when the doors automatically lock, unable to turn the power back on and escape.
Meanwhile, the androids in all three worlds run amok, operating on reserve power. Martin and Blane, recovering from a drunken bar-room brawl, wake up in Westworld's brothelunaware of the park's massive breakdown. When the Gunslinger challenges the men to a showdown, Blane treats the confrontation as an amusement until the android outdraws and shoots, killing him.
Martin runs for his life and the android implacably follows. Martin flees to the other areas of the park, but finds only dead guests, damaged androids, and a panicked technician attempting to escape Delos, who is shortly thereafter shot and killed by the Gunslinger. Martin climbs down through a manhole in Roman World into the underground control complex and discovers that the resort's computer technicians suffocated in the control room when the ventilation system shut down.
The Gunslinger stalks him through the underground corridors, so he runs away until he enters an android-repair laboratory. When the Gunslinger enters the room, Martin pretends to be an android, throws acid into the Gunslinger's face, and flees, returning to the surface inside the Medieval World castle.It is tasked with "regulating the public exhibition of films under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act Censorship boards were originally independent bodies under the police chiefs of the cities of Madras now ChennaiBombay now MumbaiCalcutta now KolkataLahore now in Pakistanand Rangoon now Yangon in Myanmar.
After the independence of Indiaautonomous regional censors were absorbed into the Bombay Board of Film Censors. With the revision of cinematography rules, the body was renamed the Central Board of Film Certification. The board's guiding principles are to ensure healthy public entertainment and education and, using modern technology, to make the certification process and board activities transparent to filmmakers, the media and the public.
The board currently issues four certificates. Originally, there were two: U unrestricted public exhibition and A restricted to adult audiences. Sincecensorship has been rigorously enforced. An incident was reported in which exhibitor staff — a clerk who sold the ticket, the usher who allowed minors to sit, a theater manager and the partners of the theater complex — were arrested for non-compliance with certification rules.
The board consists of a chairperson and 23 members, all of whom are appointed by the central government. Prasoon Joshi chairs the board; Joshi became its 28th chairperson on 11 Augustafter Pahlaj Nihalani was fired.
Samson had succeeded Sharmila Tagore. The board has been associated with a number of scandals. Film producers reportedly bribe the CBFC to obtain a U certificate, which entitles them to a percent reduction in entertainment tax.
InWar and Peace a documentary film by Anand Patwardhan which depicted nuclear weapons testing and the September 11 attacks was edited 21 times before the film was approved for release. According to Patwardhan, "The cuts that [the Board] asked for are so ridiculous that they won't hold up in court. But if these cuts do make it, it will be the end of freedom of expression in the Indian media.
Anand said, "Porn is shown everywhere in India clandestinely The board refused to certify Gulabi Aaina a film about Indian transsexuals produced and directed by Sridhar Rangayan in ; Rangayan unsuccessfully appealed the decision twice. Although the film is banned in India, it has been screened in the UK. Final Solutiona documentary examining religious riots between Hindus and Muslims in Gujarat which killed over 1, people, was also banned. According to the board, the film was "highly provocative and may trigger off unrest and communal violence".
The producers and the director, David Finchereventually decided not to release the film in India. CEO Rakesh Kumar was arrested in August for accepting bribes to expedite the issuance of certificates. The directors refused to make the changes, and the film was not certified.
CBFC chair Leela Samson resigned in protest of political interference in the board's work in after its decision to refuse certification of the film, MSG: The Messengerwas overturned by an appellate tribunal. Samson was replaced by Pahlaj Nihalaniwhose Bharatiya Janata Party affiliation triggered a wave of additional board resignations. Udta Punjabco-produced by Anurag Kashyap and Ekta Kapoorinspired a list of 94 cuts and 13 pointers including an order to remove Punjabi city names.
The film was approved for release with one cut and disclaimers by the Bombay High Court. I feel that we will be able to release the film without hampering the narrative or diluting its essence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Retrieved 17 February CBFC Website. Central Board of Film Certification. Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 9 January Freedom of speech is fundamental for art—it's all about pushing boundaries and revealing truths by saying things others haven't.
But the line is drawn at speech that causes harm to others, and not everyone agrees where that line is. While the United States is very liberal about the type of expression it allows in its media, other countries have different, sometimes very specific concerns.
There are a number of different ways a film can be banned, from importation restrictions to refused certifications by regulatory boards, all the way up to the rare instances when the screening or possession of a movie becomes a criminal act. Fortunately for viewers, there are so many ways around these roadblocks now that a movie being banned is more of a trivial inconvenience.
Still, efforts to ban movies say a lot about the countries and the movies in question. As long as free expression exists, artists will push the boundaries—and so-called watchdogs will push back. These horror films were all battlegrounds for censorship, deemed too disturbing for viewers A chronicle of a woman's rape and her brutal revenge, I Spit On Your Grave is a violent slice of grimy horror that was met with fierce opposition upon its release in Canada initially banned the movie, later allowing individual provinces to decide if it would be allowed within their borders during the s.
The U. Weirdly, the movie was only banned in Australia almost 20 years after its initial release—a largely ineffective move, considering how many copies were already in circulation by then. The ban was rescinded inbut not all countries have been so lenient as the years have gone by: in Ireland, the film remains banned to this day. Uniquely structured, Cannibal Holocaust is presented as a movie-within-a-movie, with the meat of the film being a faux documentary about a missing film crew meant to appear as real as possible.
Actual animals were killed onscreen, making the fake deaths of the human characters more believable. To help sell the illusion, the actors' contracts included a provision that they wouldn't appear in other movies, TV shows, or ads for a year's time. The fact that the actors seemed to have really disappeared complicated Deodato's defense, which ended up needing to be surprisingly robust.
Deodato demonstrated the movie's special effects, showed behind-the-scenes photos, and brought actors from the movie into the public eye to avoid prison. Australian customs authorities confiscated copies of the film, and other countries, such as the U. The Human Centipede series is notorious for two things: its foul-smelling concept, and the decreasing level of artistry across its three installments. The sequel, however, hit the throttle on its quest to generate revulsion. In their decision, the board raised the possibility that the film could be in violation of the nation's Obscene Publications Act, a move which invited indignation from the movie's director, Tom Six.
Centipede 2 was eventually approved for release in the U. The movie is currently banned in New Zealandbut intriguingly, the third movie wasn't banned anywhere at all, suggesting that at a certain point, the very notion of bothering to censor this sort of thing becomes too ridiculous for anyone to care.
Banning a movie instantly makes it more notorious—people want what they can't have, after all.
And most organizations tend to do it only in extreme circumstances, with movies so violent or sexually explicit that they'd test the mettle of even the most jaded viewer. The context is important to consider, but it raises more questions than it answers.
According to a writeup in Varietythe movie was banned for its portrayal of cannibalism—not because its scenes of humans getting devoured were especially gory, but due to concerns that such content would bring up negative memories surrounding the Holodomor, a wave of famine that struck the nation inkilling millions.
To be clear, Land of the Dead was released insome 72 years after the events of the Ukrainian famine. There's no doubt that the Holodomor was a horrifying time in the nation's history, but is Land of the Deada movie that takes place in post-apocalyptic Pennsylvania, really going to open those old wounds? The story of an adult film star who's manipulated into appearing in an increasingly sadistic movie, A Serbian Film has gained a reputation worldwide as one of the most extreme horror movies ever made.Citing movies in essays and papers is different depending on the formatting that your school uses.
Many teachers and professors will discount points for using the wrong referencing system, so it is important to find out the style formatting required for your essay before choosing a referencing system to use for films. If you have any referencing questions, ask your teacher for help before submitting the essay.
Reference the video in-text differently than you would for printed sources. Since there are no page numbers, you can cite the video by director and title.
Write the full name of the director, and italicize the name of the film. Director's last name, director's first initial. Distributor, year. Format DVD, videocassette, online film.
Reference additional information between the title and distributor of the film. You should cite anyone you reference in the film, including actors, producers, or any other relevant members of the film crew. Abbreviate "Prod" for producer, and "Perf" for performers. Cite the video in-text like you would for any other reference.
Use the name of the movie and the year of publication for all video sources. Place the reference in quotation marks at the end of the sentence where the information is referenced. Before citing the source, introduce the source in-text with the name of the video and director. Use the following information for the references page: Last name of the director or producer and initial of the first name, the year the film was released, the title of the film and the location of the studio followed by the name of the studio.
The reference should look like this: Director's last name, director's first initial. Title [Film]. Location: Studio. Place a period after each fact. Italicize the name of the movie. Place a colon between the studio location and name of the studio. Place the word "director" and the year in parenthesis. Place the film format in brackets. Reference the film in-text by placing the director of the movie in parentheses followed by the year the movie was released.
Italicize the name of the movie when referencing it in the the essay. Cite the movie in the references section using the tile of the movie, the format, the director, the year released into theaters, the location where the movie was filmed, the producer of the movie and the release date of the video copy. Reference the citation like this: Name of film italicized. Directed by Director's first name and last name. Year of theatrical release; Location of the studio City, State abbreviation: Film distributor, home viewing release year.
Cite the film in essay by the title of the film only. Place quotation marks around the title, rather than italicizing the title. Capitalize the first and last word in the title, as well as all principle words. Capitalize verbs and prepositions if they contain more than three letters.
Cite the name of the director or name of an actor in a film if you reference them specifically in the text. Introduce the director or actor in a relevant way; like, "as evidenced by the work 'Director' did in the film 'Film. Cite the film at the end of the essay. Place the title of the film in quotation marks. Place the name of the director using first name, last name.Post a comment. Sunday, 12 November Can a film be released without mention of the name of its director?
This is indeed the country where this question may be raised. The US entertainment colossus would thus follow a policy that in the US has been in place since the Weinstein scandal, as it also happened to Kevin Spacey who has been erased from the new Ridley Scott film. Directors as authors, and their moral rights. What about the moral rights of directors as authors then?
The scope of attribution. In all this, it would appear that Warner might find it potentially difficult to distribute Brizzi's film without the mention of his name. Brizzi's consent would be necessary, but might not be sufficient. In fact, at least two further points would require consideration. The first is whether the omission of the authorship credit may be regarded as some sort of 'modification' of the work. If the answer was yes, then the author could consent to it and be prevented from opposing the subsequent release of the film.
The second point directly related to the answer to the point above is whether and to what extent the moral right of attribution may be waived. This issue is still debated, both in Italian scholarship and case law. Labels: Fausto BrizzifilmsItalian copyrightPoveri ma ricchissimiright of attribution. No comments:. Newer Post Older Post Home. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Fausto Brizzi.This article became so wildly popular that it was well-needed. Sometimes, you need to ease your mind because you just have to know.
You can start your search there. This is the search filter found top-center of the page with the search field. You can first narrow it down by looking at just the Actor section of their credits page. The films are in order from newest to oldest. Just seeing the title might not be enough to spark your memory. Think about what the movie is about and try and relate the titles to that.
Most titles will make sense in relation to what the film is about. When you click on a movie title to investigate further, look at the poster or movie cover image, look at the character and actor names, and read the synopsis.
Then, go through the cast of actors on that film and try and find that actor. Utilize Google Search. Try to be vague and yet specific at the same time so to get a somewhat substantial amount of results to browse, but so you also try and filter out the obvious conflicting results that might pop up.
Note: For some reason some people are getting the idea that my blog itself contains info on movies, which it does not.
Recipe Ratings and Stories
Outside of this article, my blog does not contain any movie info. Thank you. Step 1.Some are studio releases with unrenewed copyrights, others are independent productions with errors in the credits, and still more are the impetus behind some interesting legal proceedings.
From horror icons to silent classics, here are 11 films and their public domain stories. The copyright renewal for the original film was never filed, meaning that version became public domain in Howeverin Chaplin himself reedited and re-released the film with a new score and recorded narration.
The original Keaton film entered the public domain inwhen the original copyright expired, but another version exists. Infilm distributor Raymond Rohauer re-released the film with new edits, music, and an introduction.
The Rohauer copyright was later renewed, but as with The Gold Rushonly the additional elements are under copyright. There are now three versions of A Star Is Born with a fourth on the way inbut the original is the only one in the public domain. Originally produced by the legendary David O. Selznick under his Selznick International Pictures banner, the film bounced around quite a bit in years after its release.
When its theatrical rerun potential declined, Film Classics put the film up for sale, and producer Edward L. Alperson bought it, hoping to remake it. Alperson then sold the rights again in to Warner Bros. His Girl Friday is one of the most famous films in the public domain—but with an interesting loophole.
Inthe initial year copyright on the film expired when owner Republic Pictures failed to renew it, and so the film entered the public domain. Technically, the film itself is still public domain, so if you wanted to completely reedit it and change the music, you could … but who wants that? March of the Wooden Soldiers is a particularly interesting case, because depending on who you ask, it might not actually be in the public domain.
Inafter some financial juggling, the original film was licensed to distributor Lippert Pictures for a re-release. Lippert made some cuts to the original film and retitled it March of the Wooden Soldiersbelieving that a title suggesting war would earn more box office bucks. In the process, though, Lippert failed to add a copyright notice for the new title. The copyright for the original Babes release was renewed, but the copyright for March never existed, leading some distributors and now YouTubers to continue putting that cut of the film out as a public domain release.
It was also made with only the initial theatrical release earnings in mind. Two decades and countless TV broadcasts later, it inspired the hit musical of the same name, which was in turn made into the hit film. InBatjac attempted to register copyrights on two drafts of the McLintock! The decision was later upheld by the Ninth Circuit Court in Manos is famously bad, so much so that almost no one had heard of the film until the cult TV series Mystery Science Theater mercilessly mocked it in a episode.
That episode vaulted the film into the public imagination, and it has since gained considerable fame among bad movie fans. Infilm school graduate and collector Ben Solovey discovered an unedited work print of the film and began raising funds to restore it. He later copyrighted his restoration, which was released on Blu-ray in