Scientology is one of the most mysterious and controversial religious organisations in the world. From founder L.
Brad Pitt dabbled in Scientology in the early s. Pitt was introduced to the religion in the early s by his then-girlfriend, actress Juliette Lewis, and dabbled in it for three years before eventually breaking off with both Lewis and the church to seek superstardom on his own.
Juliette Lewis and Brad Pitt looking baby-faced in While I was there I met the teenage daughter of the executive director of a Portland-based Scientology company … One of the things she told me was that Brad Pitt, who was dating Scientologist Juliette Lewis at the time, did the purification rundown at Celebrity Centre Portland.
He did it there to keep out of the public eye. She was definitely in the sauna with him, but there was nothing bad about it. His then girlfriend Juliette Lewis was there. He got so pissed off, he walked out of the trailer and just split. Juliette had to rescue him; he just needed to cool off. I guess no one had bullbaited him before.
They tried to get him back, but he never continued with Scientology. This article originally appeared on the New York Post and was reproduced with permission.
Log in Sign up. Log out. Paula Froelich, New York Post. Video Image Church of Scientology explained.Scientology is a set of beliefs and practices invented by American author L. Ron Hubbardand an associated movement. It has been variously defined as a culta business or a new religious movement. The foundation soon entered bankruptcy, and Hubbard lost the rights to his publication Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in He then recharacterized the subject as a religion and renamed it Scientology,    retaining the terminology, doctrines, the E-meterand the practice of auditing.
The Church of Scientology says that a human is an immortalspiritual being thetan that is resident in a physical body. The thetan has had innumerable past lives and it is observed in advanced Scientology texts that lives preceding the thetan's arrival on Earth were lived in extraterrestrial cultures. Scientology doctrine states that any Scientologist undergoing auditing will eventually come across and recount a common series of events.
Hubbard describes the etymology of the word "Scientology" as coming from the Latin word sciomeaning know or distinguish, and the Greek word logosmeaning "the word or outward form by which the inward thought is expressed and made known".
Hubbard writes, "thus, Scientology means knowing about knowing, or the science of knowledge". Hubbard's groups have encountered considerable opposition and controversy.
Germany classifies Scientology groups as an "anti-constitutional sect ",   while in France they have been classified as a dangerous cult by parliamentary reports.
He failed to return for the fall semester. Naval Reserve. On May 18,his subchaser left Portland. That night, Hubbard ordered his crew to fire 35 depth charges and a number of gun rounds at what he believed were Japanese submarines. Having run out of depth charges and with the presence of a submarine still unconfirmed by other ships, Hubbard's ship was ordered back to port.
Church of Scientology
A navy report concluded that "there was no submarine in the area. On June 28,Hubbard ordered his crew to fire on the Coronado Islands. Hubbard apparently did not realize that the islands belonged to US-allied Mexiconor that he had taken his vessel into Mexican territorial waters. Reporting stomach pains in Aprilhe spent the remainder of the war as a patient in Oak Knoll Naval Hospital in Oakland, California.
On October 15,Hubbard wrote a letter to the Veterans Administration formally requesting psychiatric treatment, and said he was unable to afford to pay for it himself. In AprilHubbard reportedly reacted to a drug used in a dental procedure. According to his account, this triggered a revelatory near-death experience. Allegedly inspired by this experience, Hubbard composed a manuscript, which was never published, with the working titles of "The One Command" or Excalibur.
Burkswho read the work inlater recalled it discussed the "one command": to survive. This theme would be revisited in Dianetics, the set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body which became the central philosophy of Scientology.
In the late s, Hubbard practiced as a hypnotist and he worked in Hollywood posing as a swami. Dianetics uses a counseling technique known as auditing in which an auditor assists a subject in conscious recall of traumatic events in the individual's past. Dianetics was organized and centralized to consolidate power under Hubbard, and groups that were previously recruited into Dianetics were no longer permitted to organize autonomously.
Two of Hubbard's key supporters at the time were John W. Campbell Jr. Winter, hoping to have Dianetics accepted in the medical community, submitted papers outlining the principles and methodology of Dianetic therapy to the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry inbut these were rejected.
Dianetics appealed to a broad range of people who used instructions from the book and applied the method to each other, becoming practitioners themselves. Morris Fishbeinthe editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association and well known at the time as a debunker of quack medicinedismissed Hubbard's book. Hubbard became the leader of a growing Dianetics movement. Some practitioners of Dianetics reported experiences which they believed had occurred in past lives, or previous incarnations.
Sociologists Roy Wallis and Steve Bruce suggest that Dianetics, which set each person as his or her own authority, was about to fail due to its inherent individualism, and that Hubbard started Scientology as a religion to establish himself as the overarching authority.
Also inHubbard incorporated the electropsychometer E-meter for shorta kind of electrodermal activity meter, as an auditing aid. Hubbard lived there for the next seven years.The Church of Scientology is a group of interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientologywhich is variously defined as a culta business or a new religious movement. Ron Hubbard. All Scientology management organizations are controlled exclusively by members of the Sea Orgwhich is a legally nonexistent paramilitary organization for the "elite, innermost dedicated core of Scientologists".
By that time, the Hubbard Association of Scientologists International HASI had already been operating since   and Hubbard himself had already been selling Scientology books and technologies.
In he wrote to Helen O'Brien, who was managing the organization, asking her to investigate the "religion angle". The first Church of Scientology opened in in Los Angeles. Hubbard stated, "A civilization without insanity, without criminals and without war, where the able can prosper and honest beings can have rights, and where man is free to rise to greater heights, are the aims of Scientology.
The Scientology creed emphasizes three key points: being free to enjoy religious expression, the idea that mental healing is inherently religious, and that healing of the physical body is in the spiritual domain. Hubbard had official control of the organization until when this function was transferred to a group of executives.
In Maysubsequent to the sudden death of L. Ron Hubbard, David Miscavigewho was at that time the Commanding Officer of the Commodore's Messenger Organisation, assumed the position of "chairman of the board" of the Religious Technology Center RTCa non-profit corporation that administers the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology.
Although RTC is a separate corporation from the Church of Scientology Internationalwhose president and chief spokesperson is Heber JentzschMiscavige is the effective leader of the movement. Inthe Church of Scientology implemented the "Golden Age of Tech" tech pertaining to the entire body of Scientology religious techniques releasing a training program for Scientology auditors, while precisely following Hubbard's teachings. It was followed by the launch of "The Golden Age of Knowledge" inwhere Hubbard's announcements of milestones in the research and development of Dianetics and Scientology were released.
Between andthe church would complete its year program to restore and verify the church's "scriptures". The church released the second phase of the Golden Age of Tech on Novemberbased on the original work of Hubbard. The Church of Scientology promotes and teaches Scientology, a body of beliefs and related practices created by L. Ron Hubbard, starting in as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Scientology teaches that people are immortal spiritual beings who have forgotten their true nature.
Scientology's central mythology developed around the original notion of the thetan. In Scientology, the thetan is the individual expression of "theta", described by Neusner as "the cosmic source and life force". The thetan is the true human identity, rendering humans as "pure spirit and godlike". The religion's mythology holds the belief that "in the primordial past, thetans applied their creative abilities to form the physical universe".
Contrary to the biblical narrative that shows that the universe was created by a divine, sole creator, Scientology holds that "the universe was created by theta in the form of individualized expressions". The story of Xenu is part of Scientologist teachings about extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in Earthly events, collectively described as space opera by Hubbard.
Scientology describes itself as the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, others, and all of life. According to the Encyclopedia of American Religionsit is "concerned with the isolation, description, handling and rehabilitation of the human spirit". One of the major tenets of Scientology is that a human is an immortal alien spiritual being, termed a thetanthat is presently trapped on planet Earth in a physical "meat body.
The thetan has had innumerable past lives and it is accepted in Scientology that lives preceding the thetan's arrival on Earth lived in extraterrestrial cultures. Descriptions of space opera incidents are seen as true events by Scientologists. The Church claims that they provide methods by which a person can achieve greater spiritual awareness.After Danny Masterson was accused of rape in the early s, the church did all it could to cover up the allegations.
Frederick M. August 3, Germany decided to place the group under federal surveillance, prompting the church to lodge complaints with the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. December 2, The church has been accused of being a money-making scheme that breaks families apart and abuses its members.
October 23, Ron Hubbard's death inaddresses the crowd during the opening of the Church of Scientology's new church in London.
October 22, September 18, June 22, October 16, The German government refuses to recognize the group as a church. The organization is notorious for obsessively seeking out famous members to boost its popularity. Construction began in however, but didn't open to the public until June 5, Ron Hubbard and Scientology e-meters and cans before performing stress tests at a health fair in Los Angeles.
April 10, Albert L. May 29, July 6, By summer people who had read Dianetics flocked to L. They wanted to know more. They wanted to become more proficient in Dianetics auditing.
And with this demand, four individuals an attorney, a publisher, a doctor and an engineer approached Mr. With his continuing research into the mind, Mr. Hubbard, by latefound himself studying the human spirit to answer the question of who or what was operating the mind.
With this basic and elementary discovery of the human spirita new subject was founded: Scientology. Groups of students from around the world traveled to Phoenix, Arizona, where Mr.
Hubbard held classes and lectured on the subject of Scientology. As the human spirit was truly in the realm of religiona group of Los Angeles Scientologists formed the first Church of Scientology in February Get to Know the Real You. Your first step to find out more can be as simple as a free Personality Test.
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Last Name:.Michael A. Sivertsev, Ph. Although not all members of Scientology which becomes evident from the discussions and numerous interviews that I have had believe there is a special theological system in Scientology, there nevertheless exist at least two fundamental formal attributes which point to the existence of a theological system.
First, it is the role of the charismatic leader in the establishment of the church, and secondly, it is the existence of a wel l-d eveloped religious doctrine and holy knowledge with an esoteric and an exoteric component.
The work of the founder, L. Ron Hubbard, is the basis for the dogma and organization of Scientology. Through the internal sel f-d etermination of the church, the texts of Hubbard have the role of scriptur e—t he holy text.
The charismatic leader is thus the author of the main text. The second reason for seeing in Hubbard the charismatic leader is the belief of members of the church that Hubbard was the first person who found and traveled the path to true spiritual identity. It is important to emphasise a basic difference between the charismatic founder of the movement and his followers.
For Hubbard, the path was opened as a result of his own charisma. For the followers, it requires i n-d epth study with the guidance of the scriptures. It should be emphasised that the process of achieving new levels of sel f-c onsciousness was authored and regulated in detail by Hubbard. We find it is important to emphasise that detailed regulation and authorisation of procedures is an important way of preventing any schism.
The door for any possibility of new interpretations of the authoritative texts is closed in an extremely simple but effective way. And this personal experience is connected with the technology of achievement of a true spiritual identity. The purpose of the mission of the Church of Scientology is to grant each person who has felt an internal necessity to achieve spiritual identity an opportunity to go down the path which was opened by Hubbard.
What are the main features of the charismatic leader of the Scientology movement which provide the basis on which to consider him a religious leader? First, the founder of the movement has discovered spiritual essences, spiritual knowledge which concerns every person.
Third, the knowledge given to the leader was complete and any additions are impossible: any additions only deform the knowledge and transform it into harmful knowledge. From this emanates the necessity for special supervision to make sure the instructions of the founder are followed. Fifth, the founder of the movement cannot be replaced by any other person. That is why even very high spiritual achievement of a member of the Church of Scientology cannot result in a claim of founder status to assume a new version of doctrine; hence, no one can claim to assume the authority and power of the founder.
Seventh, the service in the Church of Scientology is built upon the texts of the founder and testimonials of those members whose lives have been assisted by the church and the works of the founder. Thus, the founder of the movement, the charismatic leader, comes as a saviour to the followers; the charismatic leader offers full individual and spiritual sel f-r ealisation. In other words, the leader, the founder of Scientology is the founder of the religious doctrine and religious movement.InHubbard lost the rights to Dianetics in bankruptcy proceedings, and he subsequently founded Scientology.
Thereafter Hubbard oversaw the growth of the Church of Scientology into a worldwide organization. After his father was posted to the U. InHubbard enrolled at George Washington University to study civil engineering but dropped out in his second year.
He began his career as a prolific writer of pulp fiction stories and married Margaret "Polly" Grubbwho shared his interest in aviation. Hubbard was an officer in the Navy during World War IIwhere he briefly commanded two ships but was removed from command both times. The last few months of his active service were spent in a hospital, being treated for a variety of complaints.
Scientology became increasingly controversial during the s and came under intense media, government and legal pressure in a number of countries. During the late s and early s, Hubbard spent much of his time at sea on his personal fleet of ships as " Commodore " of the Sea Organizationan elite quasi-paramilitary group of Scientologists.
Hubbard returned to the United States in and went into seclusion in the California desert after an unsuccessful attempt to take over the town of Clearwater, Florida.
InHubbard was convicted of fraud after he was tried in absentia by France. In the same year, eleven high-ranking members of Scientology were indicted on 28 charges for their role in the Church's Snow White Programa systematic program of espionage against the United States government. Ron Hubbard was named an unindicted co-conspirator. Hubbard spent the remaining years of his life in seclusion in a luxury motorhome on a ranch in California, attended to by a small group of Scientology officials.
He died at age 74 in January Following Hubbard's death, Scientology leaders announced that his body had become an impediment to his work and that he had decided to "drop his body" to continue his research on another planet. Though many of Hubbard's autobiographical statements have been found to be fictitious, the Church of Scientology describes Hubbard in hagiographic terms and rejects any suggestion that its account of Hubbard's life is not historical fact.
During the s the Hubbards repeatedly relocated around the United States and overseas. In AprilHubbard's father was posted to Guam, and that summer, Hubbard and his mother traveled to Guam with a brief stop-over in a couple of Chinese ports. He recorded his impressions of the places he visited and disdained the poverty of the inhabitants of Japan and China, whom he described as " gooks " and "lazy [and] ignorant".
L. Ron Hubbard
In Septemberwhile living with grandparents, Hubbard enrolled at Helena High Schoolwhere he contributed to the school paper. In SeptemberHubbard was enrolled at the Swavely Preparatory School in Manassas, Virginiato prepare him for a second attempt at the examination.
They became bad when you used them as an excuse to escape the naval academy". He successfully graduated from the school in June and entered the University the following September. On September 24,Hubbard began studying civil engineering at George Washington University's School of Engineering, at the behest of his father.
In September he was placed on probation due to poor grades, and in April he again received a warning for his lack of academic achievement. During what would become Hubbard's final semester at GWU, he organized an ill-fated trip to the Caribbean for June to explore and film the pirate "strongholds and bivouacs of the Spanish Main " and to "collect whatever one collects for exhibits in museums". Hubbard returned from Puerto Rico to D.
He struck up a relationship with a fellow glider pilot named Margaret "Polly" Grubb. She was already pregnant when they married, but had a miscarriage shortly afterwards; a few months later, she became pregnant again. Hubbard became a well-known and prolific writer for pulp fiction magazines during the s.